By Tao Yang Supervisor: Yuan Jing
Key words: Taosi site Taosi culture zoo-archaeology domestic animal special phenomenon
The Taosi site is located in Xiangfen county, Shanxi province, names the Taosi culture according to the site, may divide into early, center, the late three issues, its upper limit for 2300 B. C, the lower limit for 1900 B. C, has probably continued for 400 years.
The animal skeleton remains of Taosi site separately belongs to the Taosi culture early, center, the late three issues. These animal skeleton remains total 8288, in which belong to the early time of Taosi culture to count 208; belong to the center time of Taosi culture to count 847; belong to the late time of Taosi culture count 7233, altogether represented 13 species at least. According to discovered wild animal’s ecology habit, the author carries on the attempt to recover the natural environment which located at that time to the Taosi site.
This paper has carried on the comprehensive elaboration to elementary theory and the research technique of zoo-archaeology, and through the zoo-archaeological research and archaeological context, confirmed that Canis familiaris, Sus scrofa domesticus, Capra sp., and Bos sp. of Taosi site are domestic animals. As far as animals’ NISP is concerned, domestic animals occupy a very large proportion. Based on such statistics, it can be inferred that the manner by which ancient settlers of Taosi site acquired their meal resources can be defined as “exploiting type”.
The mammal occupied the absolute control status in ancient inhabitant’s meat structure of Taosi site. In all mammal, Sus scrofa domestics, Bos sp., Capra sp., and Canis familiaris are most important, which formed the most important and stable meal source of ancient settlers of Taosi site. Meanwhile, Sus scrofa domesticus played the most important role among the four species.
After the analysis with other archaeological sites of different time and area, we are acquainted more clearly with the means of exploiting the animal resource and the animal resource’s function in the economic and social life of Taosi’s ancient settlers. Finally, the author has also carried on the discussion to the special phenomenon of Taosi site, proposed a point of not really mature view.